Abu-Sharkh and Hamid (2004) HDPE Petiole/Rachis/Trunk Mahdavi et al bath sponge handle.

 R-PP Date palm wood flour AlMaadeed et al. (2012) PP-EPDM N.S Asadzadeh et al. (2012) R-HDPE Mesh Aldousiri et al. (2013) R-PET Leaf Dehghani et al. (2013) PP Rachis Mahmoudi (2013) R-LLDPE Date palm wood flour AlMaadeed et al shower sponge brush. (2014a) R-HDPE+ Leaf Noorunnisa Khanam and R-LDPE+ AlMaadeed (2014) R-PP LLDPE Leaf/Leaflet/Rachis flour Mirmehdi et al. (2014) PVP Leaf Mohanty et al. (2014) PVP Leaf Mohanty et al. (2014) PP-EPDM Mesh Eslami-Farsani (2015) PP/Flax Leaf Aly and ElNashar (2016) ABS Leaf Neher et al. (2016) LDPE Frond Alzebdeh et al. (2017) HDPE+ Leaf Zadeh et al baby shower net dress. (2017) LDPE+ R-PP EPS Leaflets Masri et al. (2018) R-LLDPE Mesh flour Alshabanat (2019) Bio-based thermoplastic matrices PLA N.S Amirou et al. (2013) TPS Spadix stems Ibrahim et al. (2014) TPS Spadix stems Ibrahim et al. (2017) TPS Mesh Saleh et al. (2017) PCL Mesh Dhakal et al  (2018) resins are considered very commercially feasible due to their relatively cheap prices as well as their practical nature, easy processability and rapid cure schedules, which allowed them to serve the civil sectors, such as electronic gear, pipes, and tanks. 

The major use of UP resin is as a matrix for fibre—reinforced composites for various applications and industries, including aerospace, automotive, construction industries as well as household, electrical appliances and military applications (Ratna 2009). Polymer Matrix Systems Used for Date Palm Composite Reinforcement 139 Epoxy resins Epoxy resins are one of the most important polymer matrices, which play an impor- tant role in developing composites. They are created using different reinforcing phases and processing techniques (Paluvai et al. 2014). However, curing comprises polyaddition with a multipurpose co-reagent identified as “hardener” to create a three-dimensional network that can resist hard chemical environments. The epoxy resin has excellent adhesion and presents low cure shrinkage (Plummer et al. 2016). Using conventional resins has drawbacks like longer curing times, moisture uptake and higher viscosities than for UPs. There is a big range of resins and co-reagents that can be used. However, the most common epoxy resin is diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and aliphatic amine hardeners are used (Ratna 2009). They cure at room temperature but the reaction is greatly exothermic, which causes issues in thick mouldings. 

Aromatic amine hardeners on the other hand, need a higher curing temperature, but are more suitable for big parts and give high HDTs reaching 230 °C. Anhydride hardeners are not as used as amines, but are less toxic and need an accelerator. With the convenient catalysis, epoxies can be cured thermally or photolyt- ically without any co-reagent (Plummer et al make bath pouf. 2016). Thus, epoxy resins can range from hard low-temperature epoxies to more breakable high-temperature epoxies, having good mechanical strength, chemical resistance, very low creep, corrosion and weather resistance, fire retardance, good wettability, and adequate electrical prop- erties, allowing it to be used in various industrial applications such as aerospace, automotive, construction and commodity industries (Ratna 2009; Mohan 2013). Vinyl Ester (VE) resins Vinyl Ester (VE) resins are produced by the esterification of an epoxy resin with an unsaturated carboxylic acid using a catalyst such as triphenyl phosphine body puff with suction pad. VE resin exhibits desirable mechanical properties like epoxy and simultaneously offers processability like a polyester resin. VE resins offer much better flexibility and corrosion resistance compared with general purpose UP resins. VE resins are more enduring and resistant to water and chemically threatening environments which results in them being much more expensive than UPs. Composite applications of UPs and VEs are found in several industries like the construction and transport industries as well as in furniture and chemical storage tanks (Ratna 2009). 


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